TECHNOGENIC RISKS OF BUILDING AND OPERATION OF OIL AND GAS COMPLEXES IN OFFSHORE AREA OF THE CASPIAN SEA
Abstract and keywords
Abstract (English):
The article touches upon the problem of technogenic risks arising in the course of building and operating oil and gas complexes in the Caspian Sea taking into account the adoption of the Convention on the legal status of the Caspian Sea and regulation of the territorial division of the Caspian Sea. Technological risks are presented from the position of safety of industrial facilities in the offshore area and in the coastal zone, the impact of these facilities on the ecology of the Caspian is considered. The risk analysis was carried out taking into account world experience, as well as incidents that occurred at the offshore oil and gas production facilities in the Caspian Sea. There has been presented the layout of oil and gas fields at the bottom of the Caspian Sea and the division of the bottom based on adopting the Convention. A general description of the Caspian Sea has been given; unique features of the Caspian and the most unexplored seismic effects have been stated. It has been recommended to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the state of the seabed according to seismological, mud, volcanic and engineering-geological conditions; to develop measures for preventing and reducing the damage from hazardous natural processes and exploitation of oil and gas fields; to forecast the fluctuations of the Caspian Sea level, taking into account today’s economic activity; to study the natural and technogenic factors determining the environmental safety of the Caspian Sea; to monitor seismic phenomena, crustal movement in zones of tectonic faults at the sea bottom, etc. The speed and direction of wind currents in the Caspian Sea have been analyzed. The maps of mud volcanoes location in the Caspian basin (located on land, hidden and identified by seismic, geological, geophysical and geochemical methods, etc.) are illustrated. Conclusions are made about the high risks for developing hydrocarbon deposits in the Caspian Sea basin. There is the need to take into account environmental requirements and standards, to use modern technologies, to prevent incidents at offshore oil and gas production facilities.

Keywords:
the Caspian Sea, Convention on the Legal Status of the Caspian Sea, oil and gas production, technogenic danger, seismic danger, risk, earthquakes, mud volcanoes, legal order
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